This is Google’s main advertising product, which mainly includes PPC, cost per click advertising, cost per impressions, and site targeted advertising. These ads mainly work keyword based and are sold on a cost per click basis, comparable to an auction with the maximum bid or the click through rate.
Affiliates are promoting and selling products or services, which are actually owned by another website or business for a certain fee. Affiliates will only get paid by the owner if the visitor completes an action on the site.
This is a search site focused on marketing and webmaster communities, which measures website traffic for free.
An algorithm is used by search engines to identify which pages would be the most relevant for the given search command.
This is the visible text on a site that you click for the hyperlink. Search Engines check if the anchor text is relevant to the referring site and to the content of the landing page. In that case your website will gain more authority towards the search engine. Example: Insert Anchor Text
This factor shows how trustworthy a site is for a particular search query, which helps your domain or page to rank better in the search engine. The authority can be measured by Link Equity, site age, Page Rank or unique content. Moreover, there is a difference in topical authority, which is more authoritive in a specific area, and general authority, such as Wikipedia.